GRAPHIC DESIGN AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Industrial Revolution, which is usually said to have occurred first in England between 1760 and 1840, was a radical process of social and economic change. Energy was a major impetus for the conversion from an agricultural society to an industrial one. Until James Watt (1736- 1819) perfected the steam engine, which was deployed rapidly starting in the 1780s, animal and human power were the primary sources of energy. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the amount of energy generated by steam power increased a hundredfold. During the last three decades of the century, electricity and gasoline-fueled engines further expanded productivity. A factory system with machine manufacturing and divisions of labor was developed. New materials, particularly iron and steel, became available.